Restriction and Anorexia Nervosa
Skin and Hair
- Anemia, which can lead to fatigue, shortness of breath,
increased infections, and heart palpitations.
- Fatigue and weakness, including fainting spells, sleep
disruption, bad dreams, and mental fuzziness.
- Gastrointestinal problems such as constipation, bloating,
bowel irritation or nausea.
- Bone density reduction (osteoporosis), increasing risk of
fractures later in life.
- Neurological problems and weakened immune system.
- Muscular degeneration, resulting in weakness and loss of
- Edema (swelling).
Skin and Hair
- Growth of a downy layer of hair called lanugo all over the body, including the face, in an effort to keep
the body warm.
- Sunken eyes, hair loss, bloating, and dry skin.
- Skin that becomes dry and blotchy and has an unhealthy gray
or yellow cast.
- In females, absence of a period. In males, decreased
- Prepubertal patients may have arrested sexual maturity and
- Infertility, increased rates of miscarriage and other fetal
- Electrolytes: Electrolyte abnormalities, such as low blood
potassium, sodium and chloride, which can lead to irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
and possibly heart failure and death.
- Heart: Changes in the heart muscle, where its beat becomes
irregular, potentially leading to cardiac arrest and death.
- Kidneys: Dehydration, kidney stones, and kidney failure may
result in death.
- Liver: Liver damage (made worse if substance abuse is also a
factor) may result in death.
- Psychological: Psychological consequences include depression
and increased risk of suicide.